Yet the failure of the Pope to appoint a Cardinal Protector did not in anyway affect the religious role of the Order, and following the signing of the 1929 Concordat which created the Vatican City State, many Cardinals, including the new Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, became a Bailiff of the Constantinian Order.
Pope Pius XII (left) who pontificate lasted from 1939 to 1958 was a Bailiff of the Constantinian Order. Numerous other Cardinals, Archbishops and clergy were invested, and participated in the religious life of the Order under the Grand Masters of Prince Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Castro, from 1934-1960 and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, from 1960-1973.
The relationship has strengthened under the late Head of the Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies and Grand Master of the Constantinian Order, HRH Prince Ferdinando, Duke of Castro (right) up until his death in 2008.
Cardinal Vincenzo Fagiolo held the post of Grand Prior, and in 2000 he was succeeded by His Eminence Mario Francesco, Cardinal Pompedda, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Segnatura and President of the Court of Cassation of the Vatican City State.